SOLUTIONS   Environmental Analysis

OVERVIEW

CDI has played an active role in the development and implementation of models to predict the deposition and drift of spray material released from aircraft and ground sprayers. This effort - spanning the last 25 years - has occurred within the context and under the direction, supervision, and funding of the USDA Forest Service and other government agencies, as well as several industry sources its cooperators within Government and industry. The foundation of this work dates from near the start of company operations in 1979, when CDI began developing a Lagrangian model for the dispersal of spray material, utilizing the equations for particle motion, and culminating in a model initially developed for NASA known as AGDISP. This model included approximations for aircraft wake effects (vortices, propellers, and jet engines) and evaporation, and was subsequently converted to personal computers and became the near-wake model for FSCBG. The AGDISP technology has become the computational engine of choice in all active near wake models in the United States, Canada, and New Zealand.

Further development and refinement by the Spray Drift Task Force (SDTF), in cooperation with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, the USDA Agricultural Research Service, and the USDA Forest Service, led to the model known as AgDRIFT. Other model applications include SpraySafe Manager (USDA Forest Service cooperation with New Zealand Forest Research) and Spray Advisor (USDA Forest Service). The latest adaptation of the model is RegDISP, a regulatory version of AGDISP currently under development for the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. This work at CDI has been led by Dr. Milton E. Teske, with support from Mr. Thomas B. Curbishley, Dr. Alan J. Bilanin, and Dr. Todd R. Quackenbush.

These models - which were intended chiefly for use by aerial applicators in support of a wide range of agricultural aviation tasks - in turn laid the foundation of family of models developed to address several key environmental and tactical issues of interest to the Department of Defense, e.g., jettisoning of fuel or chemical compounds from military aircraft, or with the behavior of clouds of chemical/biological agents. In addition, elements of these models, when combined with also featured analysis of aircraft exhaust impact on the upper atmosphere. The links below lead to descriptions of individual projects and software, while the list of publications that follows describes the technical basis, validation, and operation of these models.

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PUBLICATIONS

A list of the 31 peer-reviewed and published papers written under USDA Forest Service contracts follows. Numerous CDI and FS technical notes have also been written, but are not shown here.

  1. A. J. Bilanin, M. E. Teske, J. W. Barry and R. B. Ekblad. 1989. AGDISP: The Aircraft Spray Dispersion Model, Code Development and Experimental Validation. Transactions of the ASAE 32(1):327-334.
  2. M. E. Teske, K. P. Bentson, R. E. Sandquist, J. W. Barry and R. B. Ekblad. 1991. Comparison of FSCBG Model Predictions with Heather Seed Orchard Deposition Data. Journal of Applied Meteorology 30(9):1366-1375.
  3. M. E. Teske, J. F. Bowers, J. E. Rafferty and J. W. Barry. 1993. FSCBG: An Aerial Spray Dispersion Model for Predicting the Fate of Released Material Behind Aircraft. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12(3):453-464.
  4. M. E. Teske and J. W. Barry. 1993. Parametric Sensitivity in Aerial Application. Transactions of the ASAE 36(1):27-33.
  5. T. B. Curbishley, M. E. Teske and J. W. Barry. 1993. Validation of the CASPR Spray Aircraft Efficiency Model. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 9(2):199-203.
  6. M. E. Teske, A. J. Bilanin and J. W. Barry. 1993. Decay of Aircraft Vortices Near the Ground. AIAA Journal 31(8):1531-1533.
  7. J. W. Barry, P. J. Skyler, M. E. Teske, J. E. Rafferty and B. S. Grim. 1993. Predicting and Measuring Drift of Bacillus thuringiensis Sprays. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12:1977-1989.
  8. M. E. Teske and A. J. Bilanin. 1994. Drop Size Scaling Analysis of Non-Newtonian Fluids. Atomizations and Sprays 4(4):473-483.
  9. M. E. Teske, A. Z. MacNichol and J. W. Barry. 1995. USDA Forest Service Spread Factor Technology Database. Pesticide Formulations and Application Systems: 14th volume. ASTM STP 1234. F. R. Hall, P. D. Berger and H. M. Collins, eds. American Society for Testing and Materials International: West Conshohocken, PA. pp. 213-224.
  10. M. E. Teske, J. W. Barry and H. W. Thistle. 1995. Environmental Fate and Accountancy. Chapter 7 of Biorational Pest Control Agents: Formulation and Delivery. F. R. Hall and J. W. Barry, eds. American Chemical Society Symposium Series No. 595. pp. 95-107.
  11. M. E. Teske, J. W. Barry and H. W. Thistle. 1996. FSCBG Predictions Coupled to GPS/GIS Aircraft Tracking. Pesticide Formulations and Application Systems: 15th volume. ASTM STP 1268. H. M. Collins, F. R. Hall and M. Hopkinson, eds. American Society for Testing and Materials International: West Conshohocken, PA. pp. 15-28.
  12. M. E. Teske, J. W. Barry and H. W. Thistle. 1996. FSCBG Predictions of Biological Dose Response Coupled to Decision Support. Pesticide Formulations and Application Systems: 16th volume. ASTM STP 1312. M. J. Hopkinson, H. M. Collins and G. R. Gross, eds. American Society for Testing and Materials International: West Conshohocken, PA. pp. 93-103.
  13. A. Z. MacNichol, M. E. Teske and J. W. Barry. 1997. A Technique to Characterize Spray Deposit in Orchard and Tree Canopies. Transactions of the ASAE 40(6):1529-1536.
  14. M. E. Teske, H. W. Thistle, J. W. Barry and B. Eav. 1998. A Simulation of Boom Length Effects for Drift Minimization. Transactions of the ASAE 41(3):545-551.
  15. M. E. Teske, H. W. Thistle and B. Eav. 1998. New Ways to Predict Aerial Spray Deposition and Drift. Journal of Forestry 96(6):25-31.
  16. M. E. Teske, C. G. Hermansky and C. M. Riley. 1998. Evaporation Rates of Agricultural Spray Material at Low Relative Wind Speeds. Atomization and Sprays 8(4):471-478.
  17. M. E. Teske and H. W. Thistle. 1999. A Simulation of Release Height and Wind Speed Effects for Drift Minimization. Transactions of the ASAE 42(3): 583-591.
  18. M. E. Teske and H. W. Thistle. 2000. Droplet Size Scaling of Agricultural Spray Material by Dimensional Analysis. Atomization and Sprays 10: 147-158.
  19. M. E. Teske, H. W. Thistle and R. E. Mickle. 2000. Modeling Finer Droplet Aerial Spray Drift and Deposition. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 16(4): 351-357.
  20. M. E. Teske, A. J. Hewitt and R. E. Mickle. 2001. The Measurement of Droplet Size Distributions from Rotary Atomizers. Pesticide Formulations and Application Systems: 21st volume. ASTM STP 1414. J. C. Mueninghoff, A. K. Viets and R. A. Downer, eds. American Society for Testing and Materials International: West Conshohocken, PA. pp. 197-209.
  21. M. E. Teske, H. W. Thistle, A. J. Hewitt and I. W. Kirk. 2002. Conversion of Droplet Size Distributions from PMS Optical Array Probe to Malvern Laser Diffraction. Atomization and Sprays 12(1-3): 267-281.
  22. M. E. Teske and H. W. Thistle. 2002. Atmospheric Stability Effects in Aircraft Near-Wake Modeling. AIAA Journal 40(7): 1467-1469.
  23. M. E. Teske and H. W. Thistle. 2003. Release Height and Far-Field Limits of Lagrangian Aerial Spray Models. Transactions of the ASAE 46(4): 977-983.
  24. M. E. Teske, H. W. Thistle and G. G. Ice. 2003. Technical Advances in Modeling Aerially Applied Sprays. Transactions of the ASAE 46(4): 985-996.
  25. M. E. Teske, A. E. Kaufman, H. W. Thistle, A. J. Hewitt and D. L. Valcore. 2003. Droplet Evaporation Corrections for Aerial Spray Drift Modeling I: Theoretical Considerations. Atomization and Sprays 13(2-3): 243-250.
  26. M. E. Teske, A. J. Hewitt and G. G. Ice. 2003. Characterizing Granular Material in Aerial Application. Pesticide Formulations and Application Systems: 23rd volume. ASTM STP 1449. G. Volgas, R. Downer and H. Lopez, eds. American Society for Testing and Materials International: West Conshohocken, PA. pp. 198-212.
  27. M. E. Teske and H. W. Thistle. 2004. Aerial Application Model Extension into the Far Field. Biosystems Engineering 89(1): 29-36.
  28. M. E. Teske and H. W. Thistle. 2004. A Library of Forest Canopy Structure for Use in Interception Modeling. Forest Ecology and Management 198: 341-350.
  29. M. E. Teske, H. W. Thistle, A. J. Hewitt, I. W. Kirk, R. W. Dexter and J. H. Ghent. 2005. Rotary Atomizer Drop Size Distribution Database. Transactions of the ASAE 48(3): 917-921.
  30. M. E. Teske, H. W. Thistle, R. C. Reardon, G. Cormier, P. Amirault, D. C. Davis, R. S. Cameron, G. Dorr, A. J. Hewitt, J. R. Brown, M. Y. LeClerc and A. Karipot. 2005. Predicted Deposition Variability due to Fluctuations in Release Height and Drop Size Distribution. Journal of ASTM International 2(4): online.
  31. M. E. Teske, H. W. Thistle, R. C. Reardon, D. C. Davis, G. Cormier, R. S. Cameron, M. Y. LeClerc and A. Karipot. 2006. Flight Line Variability in Rotary Atomizer Drop Size Distributions. Pesticide Formulations and Application Systems: 25th volume. ASTM STP 1470. M. Salyani and G. Linder, eds. American Society for Testing and Materials International: West Conshohocken, PA. pp. 168-176.


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